These are mostly used with animal anatomy, but can be used in human anatomy as long as they are describing the side of an appendage. Inversion, eversion, protraction, and retraction. Adduction, abduction, and circumduction take place at the shoulder, hip, wrist, metacarpophalangeal, and metatarsophalangeal joints. As part of defining and describing terms, the body is described through the use of anatomical planes and anatomical axes. Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body BELOW The navel is inferior to the breastbone: Term . There are many types of movement that can occur at synovial joints (Table 1). anaplasia. One example is the dorsal fin in … What anatomical term means toward the lower part of a body structure? 2. Inferior rotation occurs during limb adduction and involves the downward motion of the glenoid cavity with upward movement of the medial end of the scapular spine. Opposition is the thumb movement that brings the tip of the thumb in contact with the tip of a finger. Toward or at the backside of the body (behind) the heart is posterior to the breastbone: Term. Conversely, rotation of the limb so that the anterior surface moves away from the midline is lateral (external) rotation (see Figure 3). Cephalic -towards the head, caudal-towards the feet, anterior/ ventral means the front of body, posterior/dorsal is the back of the body. Medial: Closer to the midline of the body. frontal plane ; also called a coronal plane, is made at right angles to the midline and divides the body into anterior and posterior parts . Which term means toward the lower part of the body? Term. Term. Cranial: Toward the head, as opposed to caudad. 2. Medial excursion returns the mandible to its resting position at the midline. Or below another structure. Rotation can also occur at the ball-and-socket joints of the shoulder and hip. Excursion is the side to side movement of the mandible. Superior and inferior rotation are movements of the scapula and are defined by the direction of movement of the glenoid cavity. They describe the position of a structure with reference to its origin – proximal means closer to its origin, distal means further away. This is a list of roots, suffixes, and prefixes used in medical terminology, their meanings, and their etymologies.Most of them are combining forms in New Latin and hence international scientific vocabulary.There are a few general rules about how they combine. Figure 4. Abduction and adduction are motions of the limbs, hand, fingers, or toes in the coronal (medial–lateral) plane of movement. A directional term meaning toward the top of an animal when it is standing on all four legs; toward the backbone. These motions take place at the first carpometacarpal joint. For example, at the atlantoaxial joint, the first cervical (C1) vertebra (atlas) rotates around the dens, the upward projection from the second cervical (C2) vertebra (axis). The foot has a greater range of inversion than eversion motion. Lateral excursion moves the mandible away from the midline, toward either the right or left side. For example, your knee is superior to your ankle, even though both are located in the inferior half of the body. reference point. The aorta is ventral to the vertebral column. posterior (dorsal) toward the back of the body. The upward movement of the scapula and shoulder is elevation, while a downward movement is depression. hypoplasia. The esophagus is posterior to the trachea. As you read the examples, look at Figure above to see the location of each structure. In the front, the trunk is referred to as the "thorax" and "abdomen". Copyright 2016 - 2019 Earth's Lab All Rights Reserved -, Directional Terms for Anatomical Position and Major Body Regions, Major Regions of the Head, Neck, and Trunk. The proper way to describe the lower limb is the lower extremity. Etymology: from Modern Latin caudalis, from Latin cauda, "tail of an animal"; caud, "tail" or "lower part of the body" + -al, "referring to, pertaining to". DEFINITION. nearer to the point of attachment or to a given. In this position, the radius and ulna are parallel to each other. In the anatomical position, the upper limb is held next to the body with the palm facing forward. For example, superior means toward the upper part of the body, and inferior means toward the lower part of the body. Vs. • Inferior: means the part is below another or towards the feet (caudal). Knee flexion is the bending of the knee to bring the foot toward the posterior thigh, and extension is the straightening of the knee. Ventral is similar to anterior; it means toward the abdomen. Moving the limb or hand laterally away from the body, or spreading the fingers or toes, is abduction. Circumduction is the movement of the limb, hand, or fingers in a circular pattern, using the sequential combination of flexion, adduction, extension, and abduction motions. Movement that brings the anterior surface of the limb toward the midline of the body is called medial (internal) rotation. Caudal is the opposite of cephalic. These include anterior-posterior movements of the arm at the shoulder, the forearm at the elbow, the hand at the wrist, and the fingers at the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints. The term "myoparesis" is used to describe: dorsiflexion. Using this standard position reduces confusion. These motions involve rotation of the scapula around a point inferior to the scapular spine and are produced by combinations of muscles acting on the scapula. Rotation of the neck or body is the twisting movement produced by the summation of the small rotational movements available between adjacent vertebrae. Lack of development of an organ or tissue. (a)–(b) Flexion and extension motions are in the sagittal (anterior–posterior) plane of motion. Abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in normal arrangement. superior. This joint allows for the radius to rotate along its length during pronation and supination movements of the forearm. The type of movement that can be produced at a synovial joint is determined by its structural type. Similarly, hyperflexion is excessive flexion at a joint. Term. In cases of “whiplash” in which the head is suddenly moved backward and then forward, a patient may experience both hyperextension and hyperflexion of the cervical region. 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