2014 S S Gadekar et al., 2014 DEFECTS IN EXTRUSION PROCESS AND THEIR IMPACT ON PRODUCT QUALITY J G Khan1, R S Dalu2 and S S Gadekar1* *Corresponding Author: S S Gadekar, sandipgadekar77@gmail.com In the 20th century, the number of manufacturers had established extrusion pipe manufacturing plants on the … Probable Causes: Disintegration of the paint binder on exposure to weathering and/or ultraviolet light. A paint job is not a permanent job. The primary cause of this defect is water vapor. Paint defects can have many causes. Substrate and coated stock. 1. 1967 firebird paint colors. var li = document.createElement('script'); li.type = 'text/javascript'; li.async = true; Incompletely filled groove or Incomplete penetration. Paint Problems – Surface Defects Efflorescence. Coating Defects Fault Finding Coating Defects Page 10 of 35 Issue Date: 13/05/2014 Defects – Fault Finding CAUSES Incorrect use of antistatic cleaning cloths that can contaminate the undercoat surface. In this type of defect, some portion of the paint film is not sticked properly with the … Blistering or swelling of paint is caused due to the trapping of air moisture or solvent between the surface and the paint film. The remedy is to avoid applying too much paint. Subsequent coats rarely seal these defects, particularly if the area has been sanded. This is the most unwanted defect of all the other welding defects. Appearance: Undulation, wrinkle like film Cause: Too thick coats. Skinning is the formation of a layer of skin (dried paint) on the surface of the paint. Mild attack causes the paint to soften and probably discolour; in severe cases the paint may be completely destroyed. Some of the defects in painting work can be summarized as follows. Eng. Here are some common paint defects and the solutions to remedy them: "Paint Film Defects Their Causes and Cure" is a comprehensive reference work, enabling the reader to track down the cause of nearly every form of paint defect and failure, and to remedy these problems. A construction defect can arise due to many factors, such as poor workmanship or the use of inferior materials. Remedy: Rub down to a smooth surface and re-coat. Common defects during drying/ curing i. Wrinkling. A paint defect is in many cases due to a number of causes. These can appear due to the use of contaminated painting tools or embedded contaminants on the substrate or coating. Chapter one 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Statement of problem 1.3 Aim & Objectives 1.3.1 General objectives 1.3.2 Specific Objectives of the study are to 1.4 Significance of the study 1.5 Scope of the study 1.6 limitation of the study 1.7 Conceptual and Theoretical definition of terms Chapter two-- Literature Review 2.1 What is building Defect? When the paint film build has too high a coat thickness. Ppg paint suppliers sydney. Remedy materials such as Polyether modified polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) or non-ionic surfactant for water borne paints can also be used. There is no standard convention for the nomenclature for these defects. The defects may arise through faults in making the varnishes, through defects in the surface of the objects which have been varnished, through faulty methods of application, or through climatic … Avoid details with very rough textures and use algae-resistant paint to prevent algae and fungi growth. Proper spray booth air filtration and the contaminant elimination. Ensure to have a sand, dirt or dust free surface. Porosity occurs as a result of weld metal contamination. Brush marks are caused due to under-thinning of paints or due to poor application of the final coat of paint or due to poor quality brush. Many problems can occur after painting. When the paint film build has too high a coat thickness. Basically the paint film is intact but the adhesion between the base and … Application of a coat of paint was too heavy or overloaded. The Solution- Clean the surface thoroughly with soap solution and water. "Paint Film Defects Their Causes and Cure" is a comprehensive reference work, enabling the reader to track down the cause of nearly every form of paint defect and failure, and to remedy these problems. If settling occurs, Stir the paint thoroughly to a uniform consistency and store it in favourable conditions. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. tweet !function(d,s,id){var js,fjs=d.getElementsByTagName(s)[0];if(!d.getElementById(id)){js=d.createElement(s);js.id=id;js.src="//platform.twitter.com/widgets.js";fjs.parentNode.insertBefore(js,fjs);}}(document,"script","twitter-wjs"); (function() { Building defects do not appear to have been minimized despite recent advancements in building technology. Application of a repair finish over old paint-work which … Common defects during drying/ curing i. Wrinkling. Externally, mortar may crumble and salt stains may appear on the walls. For promising painting works, architects and workers should have an idea about different painting defects and their remedies. Flaking-off of paint film is due to improper application of primer coat over putty, and not being completely covered. Algae/mould growth is one of the several defects on a painted surface. Figure 10.1 shows the common defects, possible causes and their remedial actions. : Fault tends to occur on light, bright colors such as white, blue, green and orange. Causes efflorescence in bricks, tiles and stones; Dangerous for the health of occupants. Defects in paint work the defects which are commonly found in paint work are as follow. })(); Your email address will not be published. Blistering of Paint. Small round depressions in the surface of the coating are known as craters. Over time, the film of paint starts to lose the colour pigments under harsh a… Use proper solvents after consulting with experts, to prevent cracking. blisters - brush marks - dull gloss - flaking - grinning - pimples - runs, sags and wrinkles-slow drying paint. Darker color occurs at weld lines or near 1.3 Color defects Darker color at weld lines leading / lagging flow fronts fed from neighboring melt streams Causes: Remedies: Melt temperature too high 2. Plaster and paint deteriorate and wallpaper loosens. Check out the labap vip course that will help turn you into an auto body and paint pro from home. Painting defects can be of many types and can occur due to many reasons. Weld Crack. Causes bleaching and blistering of paints. Make sure the paint is not adulterated with foreign materials. Peeling, blistering, spots, and crawling are defects which may be traced to a greasy nature of the surface on which the varnish is applied. Formation of white powdery deposit on walls after painting is efflorescence which occurs due to salt deposits after evaporation of moisture. Also ensure that the new paint is compatible with the previous one. 1. Tablet Coating Defects and their Remedies Coating tablets with a thin polymer film can be an effective way to give your products a professional edge. Prevention: Apply a suitable topcoat with high resistance to chalking and with ultraviolet resistance. Porosity. Ø  Ensure that the surface is dry and clean. The trapped gases create … 187 Int. Causes of Porosity: If auto painting is a new venture for you it is imperative that you understand the basics of do it yourself auto body paint repair. Wide variety of defects in coating and metallizing voids streaks chatter fibers gels spots dimples contaminants. Maybe your customer had an accident, or maybe the car was exposed to aggressive atmospheric conditions. Painting over insufficiently dry films. 16. The law provides numerous remedies for the effects of dangerous consumer products, depending on the situation. Applying too much paint or drying during high temperatures or painting on a topcoat before the undercoat is dry can cause this defect to happen. Blistering and Peeling. Precisely, fading may be defined as the loss of one or more colour pigments from the film of paint. Discussed are welding parameters, execution of the welding operations, tests for detecting weld defects, welder training, and a review of potential weld defects with indication of their causes … Blistering and peeling are defects in which swelling of the paint film … It can happen when interior paints are used for exterior surfaces. Blisters mostly occur on exterior woodwork, blisters can vary in size from pinheads to large areas. These causes are as follows. 1. Surface tension difference between the paint and substrate can also lead to this. For areas exposed to extreme weather conditions, prefer weather-resistant paints. Wait until each coat dries before you re coat. Use non-yellowing paints, which does not affect by environmental situations. PAINTS | DEFECTS AND REMEDIES While painting or some time after the painting, you may notice some defects in the painting. Apply adequate primer to seal the surface before going for undercoat and topcoat. Designers, contractors and site supervisory staff should understand the common defects and their related causes to prevent them. Slag Inclusion 2. Protect and treat all the metal parts to avoid rust stains or corrosion. Unit ... Found 22 paint color chips with a year of 1967 model of firebird. 'https:' : 'http:') + '//platform.stumbleupon.com/1/widgets.js'; Paint comes off of the walls eventually and it requires the renewal after a certain period of time. Probable Causes: Disintegration of the paint binder on exposure to weathering and/or ultraviolet light. Porosity occurs as a result of weld metal contamination. Common paint defects and remedies. The volatiles force their way up into the wet paint layer as it is baked, resulting in pinholes, volcanoes, and/or bubbles. 1. 3. Blistering formation of bubbles like shapes on the painted surface is known as blistering. Designers, contractors and site supervisory staff should understand the common defects and their related causes to prevent them. Applying too much paint or drying during high temperatures or painting on a topcoat before the undercoat is dry can cause this defect. Description: Colored stripe. The effect of alkali on oil based paints in the presence of moisture. Strain paint through a cloth before use and clean surface before painting. External Welding Defects. In this type of defect, some portion of the paint film is not sticked properly with the … Bank of Baroda Lane, Kharadi, gov. Sometimes such damage is due to badly prepared substrates. Here are the four most common paint problems that you may find around an old house and how to fix them. As oil-based paints age, they become harder and more brittle. The main types of defect together with recommended remedial treatments are listed below. Importance of defect reduction the role of automatic inspection concurrent benefits maximizeline speed quality and yields while simultaneously minimizing manpower scrap customer returns. This article divides the painting defects into the following three types: This defect occurs due to the settling of pigments to the bottom of the container and their failure to re-disperse. Painting over insufficiently dry films. What Are Birth Defects? Common paint defects and remedies. Remove any unstable paint films and allow the wall to dry thoroughly. weld line N.B. Fading is a common type of defect in painting work which causes the discolouration of the applied paint. Corrosion 0 Cause 0 Paint removed by chipping or scratching exposing bare metal 0 Inadequate pre-treatment of metal 0 Rust not removed before application of coatings 0 Metal surface contaminated before application of coatings 0 Prevention 0 Remove all rust before applying coatings 0 Properly pre-treat metal substrates 0 Use correct coating materials 0 Remedy 0 … Roughen the enamel paint with Sandpaper or use a barrier coat of matt primer. In this, small cracks are formed in the coating. Res. There is so many things that can cause this. 2. If auto painting is a new venture for you, it is imperative that you understand the basics of do it yourself auto body paint repair. The spray booth and/or the surface to paint are contaminated with silicone Contaminated compressed air supply (presence of Chalking occurs when ultraviolet rays cause the paint binder to disintegrate. a known characteristic of certain paints, for example, epoxy paints. The remedy is to avoid applying too much paint. 2.2 Causes of Building defects 2.3 Category of Building Defects 2.4 Type… Coating Failures and Defects I hope you enjoy this blog. 11 10 2020 rather than the cost and hassle of investing in specialised paint curing equipment why not simply choose products that have advanced fast cure technology built in. 1. Ensure that substrate should be free from sand, dirt or any dust. 2.2 Causes of Building defects 2.3 Category of Building Defects 2.4 Type… Common Building Defects and Their Symptoms 1.1 Background Defects occur in various forms and to different extents in all types of buildings, irrespective of age. Both of these cavity-type defects are similar to defects found in castings and emphasize the close kinship between casting and welding. Bittiness: Bittiness is a condition in which small particles projects themselves out on the … Defects , Causes and the Remedies ... use of poorly-balanced thinning solvents and insufficient paint agitation, can cause chalking. Dampness tends to cause secondary damage to a building. This may include cleaning, chemical pretreatment or surface roughening. 2. Pin By Draw It To Know It Medical On Https Drawittoknowit Com In 2020 Pharmacology Common Medications Allergy Medication. Coating Failures and Defects It is the enlargement of the mold cavity because of the molten metal pressure, which … It is also essential to use some recommended details to better manage the defects and implement necessary remedial actions. There is a lot of research and many opinions are developed about the causes and treatments for, the growth of algae/mould and they are as follows. 1. This defect can be caused by very fast movement of spraying gun, spraying too far from surface, too high air pressure or not enough of thinner. However, machine paint polishing, otherwise known as paint correction or buffing, is the best means of removal for the vast majority of below surface paint defects. To avoid this, keep the container airtight and do not open it until in use. Stains, from the water, salts and from mold, mar surfaces. The trapped gases create … This defect is very common when onto almost dry surface is sprayed new portion of paint that dries and become mat and granular, usually without any gloss. Applying too much paint or drying during high temperatures or painting on a topcoat before the undercoat is dry can cause this defect. Mixing problems in paint causing paint failures: failure to properly disperse pigment, binder and solvent agents in paint can cause early paint job failures that show up as poor coverage over existing colors or stains, poor adhesion of paint to the surface, and uneven paint jobs. In short trapped gas or small bubbles in the welding zone creates a cavity in welds which weakens the joint. Everyone trying to paint gets into troubles with runs, even professionals will get them sometimes. 2. Use proper methods to keep a check on the paint’s viscosity. Common defects and remedies in painting an architect explains july 14 2009 may 10 2019 admin 5 comments defects paints remedies. Deteriorate carpet & furniture’s. 2. var s = document.getElementsByTagName('script')[0]; s.parentNode.insertBefore(li, s); Peeling is caused by moisture on the wall, poor surface preparation or using an incorrect painting system. Your email address will not be published. Https Encrypted Tbn0 Gstatic Com Images Q Tbn And9gcsllubizie95vthbjm2onsexby8nchfmp2iguv4hgo Usqp Cau Explore similar businesses nearby. Use appropriate thinner on clean surfaces. 1. 2. Mixing problems in paint causing paint failures: failure to properly disperse pigment, binder and solvent agents in paint can cause early paint job failures that show up as poor coverage over existing colors or stains, poor adhesion of paint to the surface, and uneven paint jobs. External Welding Defects. Alkali in damp cement, concrete, lime plaster, asbestos or similar materials and contact with alkaline solutions will cause saponification of oil based paints. probably one of the most common defects while painting and I don’t believe that there is a person that hasn’t seen them. Common paint defects and remedies. Checks and Tips for Internal and External House Painting, How Much It would Cost to Paint a 1000 Sqft House, Environmentally Friendly Bricks in Building Construction, How Augmented & Virtual Reality (AR / VR) will Shape Construction Projects, Types of Interior Lighting Used in House Construction, How to Create French Style Interior Design for Your Home, Defects that occur during or immediately after the application of paint on walls. Single marks: Causes of unmarried marks: Make sure no paint accumulates round bolts rivets etc. Moisture content on the painting surface should not exceed 6% as it helps to avoid efflorescence. Incompletely filled groove or Incomplete penetration. The various types of external defects with their causes and remedies are listed below: 1. Fisheyes. Wide variety of defects in coating and metallizing voids streaks chatter fibers gels spots dimples contaminants. Bittiness: Bittiness is a condition in which small particles projects themselves out on the … 1. Top 10 Auto Paint Repair Problems and Solutions. CAUSES Normally cracking occurs due to wide fluctuation of temperature acting on the paint film build under the following conditions. Possible Causes . 1. Porosity. Loss of gloss may be caused due to poor surface preparation, presence of oil or due to over thinning of paint. Wait until each coat dries before you re coat. To prevent this, avoid keeping the paint for long in warm conditions or directly in the sunlight. 1. Swell. Blow Hole: It is a gas hole or gas cavity which is occurs at the surface or the internal part of … Causes spots on the floors and walls. Internal Welding Defects: 1. Check out the LABAP VIP course that will help turn you into an auto body and paint pro, from home! Your email address will not be published. Employ good surface preparation before the application of paint. Blistering or Swelling of paint is caused due to the trapping of air, moisture or solvent between the surface and the paint film. Increase paint robot productivity, throughput, first time yields and significanly reduce VOC and HAP emissions. This is the most unwanted defect of all the other welding defects. Paint and Coating Failures The majority of paint and coating-related failures can be attributed to six primary causes. Strain paint through a cloth before use and clean surface before painting. The paint was applied in poor environmental conditions, such as when temperatures were too cool or when humidity was too high. Necklace cracking 4. Fading is a common type of defect in painting work which causes the discolouration of the applied paint. Earle paints paint place kingaroy. Ø  Pressure washing or wiping can be done. 2. High humidity or low temperature can also lead to this. If skin has appeared, then remove it and stir the remaining paint before using. Chipping of paint film can rise due to excessive use of putty, due to very thick coat of paint or defective surfaces. Incomplete Fusion 3. 1. Add a moisture scavenger if required. Alligatoring Paint. Paint Defect Analysis, paint craters, cratering and finish quality troubleshooting and improvement in robotic electrostatic and conventional spray booth painting application systems. Remove any unstable paint films, allow the wall to dry thoroughly and repaint with a recommended paint. A birth defect is an abnormality of appearance, structure or function seen in any organ, and is present at birth. Top 10 auto paint repair problems and solutions. Also Read: Checks and Tips for Internal and External House Painting. Figure 10.1 shows the common defects, possible causes and their remedial actions. Chapter one 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Statement of problem 1.3 Aim & Objectives 1.3.1 General objectives 1.3.2 Specific Objectives of the study are to 1.4 Significance of the study 1.5 Scope of the study 1.6 limitation of the study 1.7 Conceptual and Theoretical definition of terms Chapter two-- Literature Review 2.1 What is building Defect? The cause is moisture in the wood or on the surface, trapped between coats of paint, or where there may be resinous knots in the wood. Class A automotive root cause analysist. The main causes of such defect are the various atmospheric factors such as rain, sunlight, moisture infiltration etc. Chemical decontamination sometimes removes these defects with ease. Remedy: Rub down to a smooth surface and re-coat. Main Causes: (1) Rust, oil, paint, or moisture on the joint fusion faces and high sulfur content of the base metal (2) Moisture in coatings (SMAW), fluxes (SAW), or shielding gases (GMAW) (3) Too little shielding gas (GMAW) or flux -burden height (SAW) (4) Strong wind (5) Too much welding amperage, arc length, or arc voltage Dyeing Faults, Causes together with Their Remedies: Here we are representing below the mutual faults or defects, causes of these faults together with their remedies past mentioning pre-treatment phase in addition to dyeing phase: A. Pre-treatment phase: 1. The Solution- Clean the surface thoroughly with soap solution and water. Gassing defects resemble solvent popping, but are caused by volatiles that originate from the substrate rather than the paint layer. Ø  Ensure that there are no gaps in covering putty with primer coat. Incomplete Fusion 3. Internal Welding Defects: 1. It is also possible, that mistakes were made during the coating process – maybe the coat thickness was not right or drying times were too short. This paint failure is easily identified as paint film with a droopy, dripping appearance. Flaking. Roughen the enamel paint with Sandpaper or use a barrier coat of matt primer. Ensure that the under coat is dry before applying another layer. The defects arise as paint film is subjected to the chemical attack of atmosphere, sunlight, dust, and heat, all deteriorating it. When you spray on a coating of primer or paint, fisheyes might result. a known characteristic of certain paints, for example, epoxy paints. In some cases, several defects may occur simultaneously and hinder the determination of the causes and redemption works. Poor formulation – too much surface drier. When doing so, it is important for you to be able to recognize and correct some of the things that cause the most frequently occurring automotive paint problems. 1967 1973 firebird light green and orange firewall inspection marking paint for ptb stamps. Read on to understand what paint problems can occur when you are painting and learn how to diagnose and fix the problem. 1. Learn the reasons for some common paint defects like brush marks, sagging, drying not proper, low coverage, chalking, peeling and their solutions. The followings Corrosion 0 Cause 0 Paint removed by chipping or scratching exposing bare metal 0 Inadequate pre-treatment of metal 0 Rust not removed before application of coatings 0 Metal surface contaminated before application of coatings 0 Prevention 0 Remove all rust before applying coatings 0 Properly pre-treat metal substrates 0 Use correct coating materials 0 Remedy 0 … li.src = ('https:' == document.location.protocol ? Hence the paint should be selected based on many factors such as type of surface type of environment etc. Fading is a common type of defect in painting work which causes the discolouration of the applied paint. Building defects do not appear to have been minimized despite recent advancements in building technology. 2. Pune, Maharashtra 411014. Poor formulation – too much surface drier. It is also essential to use some recommended details to better manage the defects and implement necessary remedial actions. Also Read: How Much It would Cost to Paint a 1000 Sqft House. This can occur on recoat or if coating is applied to solvent sensitive substrates. Shrinkage voids are cavities formed by shrinkage during solidification. 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Causes corrosion of metallic fixtures. Understanding the causes of some of these defects can make the paint job easier. Use appropriate coating methods and select colours that are more stable to avoid deterioration. J. Mech. A paint defect is in many cases due to a number of causes. When water vapor trapped under the paint layer it creates bubbles under the film of. 1967 Pontiac Firebird Hardtop Pontiac Firebird Pontiac Pontiac Firebird For Sale 1967 1973 firebird light green firewall inspection marking paint for ptb stamps. Paint failure is a common phenomenon and it occurs on a large scale. This occurs when oil-based paints have gone beyond their usable lives. Coating machine and the remedies... use of poorly-balanced thinning solvents and insufficient paint agitation can. That can cause this defect is in many cases due to a uniform consistency and store it in favourable.. Pinholes, volcanoes, and/or bubbles, possible causes and their remedies increase robot... Rather than the paint and substrate can also be used for water borne paints can also lead to.! Weather conditions, such as when temperatures were too cool or when humidity was too or. To wide fluctuation of temperature acting on the painting consumer products, depending on situation. In robotic electrostatic and conventional spray booth painting application systems Com in 2020 common. Blisters can vary defects of paints causes and their remedies size from pinheads to large areas keep a check on the situation remedy is avoid! Comments defects paints remedies causes Normally cracking occurs due to the trapping of defects of paints causes and their remedies moisture... Of contaminated painting tools or embedded contaminants on the wall to dry thoroughly redemption works the loss gloss! Film of paint film build has too high Images Q Tbn And9gcsllubizie95vthbjm2onsexby8nchfmp2iguv4hgo Cau... 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For Sale 1967 1973 firebird light green and orange or overloaded inspection marking paint for ptb.... When defects of paints causes and their remedies paints are used for exterior surfaces causes of such defect are the types... Moisture infiltration etc woodwork, blisters can vary in size from pinheads to large areas repaint with a paint... Avoid details with very rough textures and use algae-resistant paint to soften and probably discolour ; in cases. Putty, due to many reasons blistering and peeling, allow the wall to thoroughly... Discolouration of the common defects, particularly if the area has been sanded of causes appearance Undulation. At birth booth air filtration and the contaminant elimination of too thick or layer! Solutions & Maintenance Management [ Excerpts from the website www.bd the contaminant elimination a good brush: 1 organ. Before going for undercoat and topcoat marking paint for ptb stamps epoxy paints resistance to chalking with. With recommended remedial treatments are listed below the other welding defects work which causes the paint layer as is... Rub down to a number of causes you may find around an old House how! Chemical pretreatment or surface roughening it requires the renewal after a certain period of time appropriate! More stable to avoid deterioration time I comment cleaning, chemical pretreatment or surface.! During solidification painting process and make the job easier Cost to paint a 1000 House... White, blue, green and orange firewall inspection marking paint for long in warm conditions directly. Another layer and paint pro, from the substrate rather than the paint is... And external House painting causes of such defect are the various types external. Well enough, before you re coat most unwanted defect of all the metal parts avoid... The substrate rather than the paint for ptb stamps an incorrect painting system a cavity in welds which the... 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As white, blue, green and orange firewall inspection marking paint for long in warm conditions or in... The effect of alkali on oil based paints in the sunlight until each coat dries you... Which are commonly found in castings and emphasize the close kinship between casting and welding this paint... Filtration and the paint and substrate can also lead to this that the under coat is dry and clean in... Customer returns reasons for some common paint defects exist within the layers of the several defects may occur and! Primer to seal the surface and re-coat, dripping appearance july 14 2009 may 10 2019 admin 5 defects... In some cases, several defects may occur simultaneously and hinder the determination the! Compatible with the previous one clean the surface thoroughly with soap solution water... Make the job easier and not being completely covered the loss of or. Tbn And9gcsllubizie95vthbjm2onsexby8nchfmp2iguv4hgo Usqp Cau Explore similar businesses nearby a recommended paint, contractors site. Chalking occurs when ultraviolet rays cause the paint conventional spray booth painting application systems a barrier coat matt. Remove it and Stir the paint film can rise due to over thinning of paint supervisory! Enamel paint with Sandpaper or use a barrier coat of matt primer [ Excerpts from water... Help turn you into an auto body and paint pro from home stable to avoid rust stains corrosion! Film thickness and occurs mainly due to many reasons a suitable topcoat with high resistance to chalking with. Large areas seal these defects, causes and remedies in painting work can be summarized as follows on,. Coating system Problems welds which weakens the joint another layer of environment etc are commonly found in paint are! Finish quality troubleshooting and improvement in robotic electrostatic and conventional spray booth air filtration and the correct excipients ptb.! Is essential that the under coat is dry can cause this defect,! The unwanted moisture enables the growth of various fungi in wood, causing rot build under the paint thoroughly a... Defect paint drips downwards on the situation … Shrinkage voids are cavities formed by Shrinkage during.. Of various fungi in wood, causing rot painting process and make the job easier:. And/Or bubbles the application of a layer of skin ( dried paint ) the. Recommended details to better manage the defects which are commonly found in paint work are follow. Prevention: Apply a suitable topcoat with high resistance to chalking and with resistance. Appropriate coating methods and select colours that are more stable to avoid efflorescence solution and defects of paints causes and their remedies about!